Authors & Affiliations
Toshinsky G.I. 1,2
1 A.I. Leypunsky Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia 2 JSC “AKME-engineering”, Obninsk, Russia
Development of reactor facilities (RF) with lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) was carried out in conditions of lack of necessary knowledge and experience. Moreover, there were fixed directive terms of work completion, which practically eliminated the opportunity for performance of related scientific and research works that was a reason of multiple failures at the stage of mastering of that technology. In the presented report the following issues are considered: the reasons for option of eutectic lead-bismuth alloy as coolant, principal scientific and technical problems solved in the process of mastering of LBC cooled RFs including the problem of coolant technology and corrosion resistance of steels, providing of radiation safety when realizing works related to release of polonium, providing of reliability of steam generators, incidents and accidents happened in the process of operating and ways for elimination of their reasons, experience of fuel unloading performance. On the whole, in the process of performing tests at Facility 27/VT the invaluable experience was obtained that made possible elimination of the reasons of happened accidents and provide reliable operation at RFs of serial nuclear submarines (NS) of Project 705 (705K). On the basis of critically analyzed operating experience, the civilian RF project, namely SVBR-100 that is meeting the Generation IV requirements is being developed.
lead-bismuth coolant, reactor, steam generator, polonium, accident, corrosion, operating experience, core
1. Leypunsky A.I. The selected works. Reminiscences. Kiev, Naukowa Dumka, 1990. 225 p. (In Russia)
2. Toshinsky G.I., Stepanov V.S., Nikitin L.B. et al. The Analysis of Operating Experience of Reactor Installations Using Lead-Bismuth Coolant and Accidents Happened. Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Heavy-Liquid Metal Coolants in Nuclear Technologies (HLMC-98). Obninsk, Russia, 1999, vol. 1, pp. 63–69.
3. Orlov Yu.I., Martynov P.N., Rusanov A.E. et al. Tekhnologiya tyazhelykh zhidkometallicheskikh teplonositeley Pb-Bi i Pb v yadernoy energetike [The technology of heavy liquid metal coolants Pb-Bi and Pb in nuclear power]. Trudy konferentsii “Tyazhelye zhidkometallicheskie teplonositeli v yadernykh tekhnologiyakh (TZhMT 2003)” [Proc. Conf. "Heavy liquid metal coolants in nuclear technology (HLMC 2003)"]. Obninsk, 20033.
4. Rusanov A.E., Levin O.E., Skvortsov N.S. et al. Eksperimental'naya baza GNTs RF – FEI po issledovaniyam korrozii staley v TZhMT, sovremennoe sostoyanie i puti razvitiya [Experimental base of IPPE for the study of corrosion of steels in HLMC, current state and development paths]. Trudy konferentsii “Tyazhelye zhidkometallicheskie teplonositeli v yadernykh tekhnologiyakh (TZhMT 2008)” [Proc. Conf. “Heavy liquid metal coolants in nuclear technologies (HLMC 2008)”]. Obninsk, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 100.
5. Handbook on Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Alloy and Lead Properties, Materials Compatibility, Thermal-hydraulics and Technologies. OECD-NEA, 2015.
6. Pankratov D.V., Yefimov E.I., Toshinsky G.I., Ryabaya L.D. Analysis of Polonium Danger in Nuclear Power Installations with Lead-Bismuth Coolant. Proc. ICAPP’05. Seoul, Korea, 2005.
7. Sazonov V.K., Toshinsky G.I., Stepanov V.S. et al. Technology and Experience of Repair Works and Refuelings for the Nuclear Power Installations with Lead-Bismuth Coolant. Proc. 1st Int. Conf. on Heavy-Liquid Metal Coolants in Nuclear Technologies (HLMC-98). Obninsk, 1999, vol. 2, pp. 599–605.
8. Toshinskii G. Lead-Bismuth Cooled Fast Reactors. Collection of Selected Articles and Papers. LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2018. 548 p.