Authors & Affiliations
Ryazantsev G.B., Beckman I.N., Buntseva I.M.
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Beckman I.N. – Professor, Dr. (Chem.) Sci., Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
Buntseva I.M. – Engineer, Cand. Sci. (Chem.), Department of Radiochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University.
D.I. Mendeleev assumed the existence of elements X (“Newtonium”) and Y (“Coronium”) in front of hydrogen in the zero group of the periodic system of chemical elements (PS). It should be recalled that Mendeleev was not mistaken in his predictions of new elements. When he applied the periodic law (PL) to analogues of boron, aluminum and silicon, he had complete confidence in success, because everything was obvious to him there. The idea of elements before hydrogen came to him immediately after the opening of the PL, but he published this only before his death. This question haunted him almost his entire creative life. D.I. Mendeleev did not have time to solve this problem, and his students and followers tried to forget it as “erroneous”. It should be noted that after D.I. Mendeleev the question of “zero” elements was repeatedly raised by many authors both in the past and in the present centuries, however, for brevity, we only mention the very first and most famous of them: for example, Ernest Rutherford in 1920 and Andreas von Anthropoff in 1926. Anthropoff was the first to propose the term «neutronium» to refer to a hypothetical element with atomic number zero, which he placed at the beginning of the periodic table (PT). At present, neutron matter, like neutron stars, is a recognized reality in astro- and nuclear physics. From the standpoint of general chemistry, a neutron substance can be classified as chemically simple (that is, it cannot be decomposed into simpler ones by chemical means), then the question inevitably arises of the corresponding element and its place in the PS. Based on the logic of the PL – (ordinal number – electric charge) – the ordinal number of neutron matter will correspond to zero, which makes us remember and develop the ideas of Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev about the zero group and period. Based on the works of Tamm, Hund and Migdal, the possibility of the stable existence of neutron matter at the micro level, and not only at the macro level, as is now believed in astrophysics, is stated. Neutron matter is considered as the primary cosmological substance, a candidate for dark matter and its production in laboratory conditions on Earth.
D.I. Mendeleev, periodic law, newtonium, coronium, neutronium, neutron matter, zero group and pe-riod, dark matter
1. Ryazantsev G.B., Lavrenchenko G.K., Beckman I.N., Buntseva I.M., Nedovesov S.S. Condensation of Cold Neutrons – Idea of G.A.Gamow. Chemical Properties of the Neutron Matter and its Place in the Periodic System of Elements. Odessa Astronomical Publications, 2018, vol. 31, pp. 33–37.
2. Ryazantsev G.B., Beckman I.N., Lavrenchenko G.K., Buntseva I. M., Nedovesov S.S. Development of the Concept of Nuclear Exchange Beta-Forces. On the Possibility of Obtaining Neutron Substance in Laboratory Conditions. Proc. 26th International Seminar on Interaction of Neutrons with Nuclei (ISINN-26). Dubna, 2019, pp. 37–44.
3. Ryazantsev G.B., Lavrenchenko G.K. Sovremennyy vzglyad na “nulevye” v Periodicheskoy sisteme elementov D.I. Mendeleeva [The modern view of the “zero” in the Periodic system of elements Mendeleev]. Tekhnicheskie gazy - Technical Gases, 2014, no. 1, pp. 3–10.
4. Ryazantsev G.B., Lavrenchenko G.K. Neytronnoe veshchestvo kak “nachalo” i “konets” Peri-odicheskoy sistemy D.I. Mendeleeva [Neutron substance as the "beginning" and "end" of the Periodic system D.I. Mendeleev]. Tekhnicheskie gazy - Technical Gases, 2016, no. 4, pp. 41–49.
5. Ryazantsev G.B. Problema “nulevykh” v rabotakh Mendeleeva [The problem of "zero" in the works of Mendeleev]. Nauka i zhizn' - Science and Life, 2014, no. 2, pp. 76–80.
6. Ryazantsev G.B., Lavrenchenko G.K., Khaskov М.А., Beckman I.N. Chemical Properties of the Neutron Matter and its Place in the Periodic System of Elements. Proc. 24th International Seminar on Interaction of Neutron with Nucle (ISINN-24). Dubna, 2017, pp. 65–74.
7. Ryazantsev G.B., Lavrenchenko G.K., Beckman I.N., Buntseva I.M. Condensation of Cold Neutrons – Idea of G.A.Gamow. On the Possibility of Obtaining a Neutron Substance in Laboratory Conditions. Proc. 18th Gamow Summer School. Odessa, 2018, pp. 15.
8. Zel'dovich Ya.B., Popov V.S. Elektronnaya ctruktura cverkhtyazhelykh atomov [The electronic structure of superheavy atoms]. Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk - Advances in Physical Sciences, 1971, vol. 105, pp. 403–440.
9. Shapiro F.L. Neytronnye issledovaniya [Neutron research]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1976. 348 p.
10. Ignatovich V.K. Ul'trakholodnye neytrony – otkrytie i issledovanie [Ultracold neutrons - discovery and research]. Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk - Advances in Physical Sciences, 1996, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 303–324.
11. Mendeleev D.I. Periodicheskiy zakon [Periodic Law]. Leningrad, Goskhimtekhizdat Publ., 1934. 520 p.
12. Mendeleev D.I. Granits poznaniya predvidet' nevozmozhno [The boundaries of knowledge are impossible to foresee]. Moscow, Soviet Russia Publ., 1991. 598 p.
13. Dobrotin R.B. et al. Letopis' zhizni i deyatel'nosti D.I. Mendeleeva [Chronicle of the life and work of D.I. Mendeleev]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1984.
14. Tamm I.E. Teoriya yadernykh sil i atomnogo yadra [The theory of nuclear forces and the atomic nucleus]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1975, pp. 283–326.
15. Hund F. Materie unter sehr hohen Drucken und Temperaturen. Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften, 1936, vol. 15, pp. 189–228.
16. Migdal A.B. Teoriya konechnykh Fermi sistem i svoystva atomnykh yader [The theory of finite Fermi systems and the properties of atomic nuclei]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, pp. 54.
17. Potekhin A.Yu. Fizika neytronnykh zvezd [Physics of neutron stars]. Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk - Advances in Physical Sciences, 2010, vol. 180, no. 12, pp. 1279–1304.
18. Zwicky F. Nuclear Goblins and Flare Stars. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1958, vol. 70, no. 416, pp. 506–508.
19. Gamow G. Expanding Universe and the Origin of Elements. Phys. Rev., 1946, vol. 70, pp. 572.
20. Serebrov A.P., Boldarev S.T., Erykalov A.N. et al. Supersource of ultracold neutrons at WWR-M reactor in PNPI and the research program on fundamental physics. Physics Procedia, 2011, vol. 17, pp. 251–258.
21. Cornell E.A., Wieman C.E., Ketterle W. Nobelevskie lektsii po fizike — 2001 [Nobel Lectures in Physics 2001]. Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk - Advances in Physical Sciences, 2003, vol. 173, no. 12, pp. 1319–1337.